PETROLEUM HYDROCARBOONS

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Warehousing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 1

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Site Location: Union, NJ
Contamination: BTEX (28,161 ppb); Methyl t-butyl ether (7,240 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Unconfined silty layer.
Area Treated: Approximately 5,000 sq. ft between 0 - 20 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Each compound was treated to below its NJDEP standard; site received No Further Action letter.

Manufacturing and Warehouse Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 2

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Site Location: Passaic, NJ
Contamination: trans-1,2-Dichloroethene (18.8 ppb); cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (317,200 ppb); Xylenes (3,400 ppb); Ethylbenzene (2,000 ppb); Trichloroethene (78 ppb); and Vinyl Chloride (4,224 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Fine silt and clay layer; water table at approximately 8-10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 1000 sq. ft .
Effectiveness:  Site-wide total VOCs were reduced from 278,849 ppb to 178 ppb.

Former Sign Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 4

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Site Location: Denver, CO
Contamination: BTEX (24,595 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Confined clay layers with permeable sand lenses.
Area Treated: ~9,600 sq. ft at a vertical interval of 2-8 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Overall BTEX reduced from 24,595 ppb to 89 ppb. Each COC was treated to ND or well below its cleanup level throughout the plume. State of Colorado issued an Unrestricted No Further Action letter to the property.

Truck Rental Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 5

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Site Location: Oklahoma City, OK
Contamination: BTEX up to 4,100 ppb plus free product in some locations.
Geology: Alluvial sand; water table is approximately 12 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~3,000 sq. ft at an interval of 20-30 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Up to 93% reduction in total VOCs site-wide.

Lakefront Residence

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 8

Site Location: Sussex County, NJ
Contamination: Fuel Oil #2, TPH approximately 12,000 to 20,000 ppm in soil.
Geology: Fractured bedrock formation at 4 ft bgs containing perched water table.
Area Treated: ~1,800 sq. ft at a vertical interval of 2-12 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide TPH was reduced by 82% with 96% in hot spot area. The property received a "No Further Action letter."

Utilities Authority

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 9

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Site Location: Southern NJ
Contamination: Toluene (87 ppb); Ethylbenzene (91 ppb); Xylenes (1,260 ppb); Naphthalene (27 ppb); and 2-Methylnaphthalene (5 ppb).
Geology: Sandy formation; water table is approximately 9-10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 1000 sq. ft at an interval of 10-18 ft bgs.
Effectiveness: All COCs were treated to below NJDEP groundwater criteria with VOCs reduced by 99% and base neutral compounds by 76%..

Active Quarry Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 10

Site Location: Sussex County, NJ
Contamination: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (341 ppb); 1,2-Dichlorobenzene (2,760 ppb); Naphthalene (279 ppb)
Geology: Fractured bedrock underlying glacial overburden 9-20 ft thick; water table is at approximately 20-25 ft bgs within the bedrock
Area Treated: Approximately 1200 sq. ft at an interval from 20-65 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide groundwater contamination reduced by 98%. All COCs were treated to ND or well below NJDEP groundwater criteria.

Former Maintenance and Repair Garage

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 11

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Site Location: West Chester, NY
Contamination: BTEX (4,869 ppb) and MTBE (451 ppb).
Geology: Very fine to coarse sand and gravel underlain by fractured bedrock. Water table is approximately 3-10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: - Two separate areas: 2,400 sq ft BTEX plume and a downgradient 17,600 sq ft MTBE plume targeting the 11 - 20 ft bgs interval.
Effectiveness:  66% reduction of total BTEX and 62% of MTBE in hot spots, and below NYSDEC cleanup criteria in downgradient area. NYSDEC issued No Further Action letter.

Railroad Maintenance Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 13

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Site Location: North Creek, NY
Contamination: Petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.
Geology: Saturated sand and gravel, located 20 feet from banks of Hudson River.
Area Treated: 13,800 Sq. ft area at 2.5-12 fbgs vertical depth interval. Depth to water approximately 8 - 10 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Total VOCs reduced by 83.1% & PAHs by 81.5%. Site received Case closure. Project received Grand Conceptor Award and National Recognition Award.

Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 17

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Site Location: Northwestern Florida
Contamination: Benzene (29,942 ppb); Toluene (25,009 ppb); and Ethylbenzene (2,942 ppb).
Geology: Compact fine to medium grained silty clayey sands from land surface to 6 ft bgs followed by a clay lens; water table is approximately 6-7 ft bgs in source area.
Area Treated: 14,130 Sq. ft area at 3-17 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Benzene was reduced by >90%; Ethylbenzene and Toluene were treated to below FDEP criteria in the treated area.

Military Jet Maintenance Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 19

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Site Location: Tulsa, Oklahoma
Contamination: TPH in soil ranged from 5,000 mg/kg to 8,000 mg/kg
Geology: Coarse, sandy soil and native fill underneath an 8-inch concrete slab
Area Treated: 3,750 Sq. ft area at 1.0-2.5 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  TPH was reduced by >90%.

Former MGP Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 21

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Site Location: Long Beach, CA
Contamination: PAHs (2,484 mg/kg) including Benzo(a)Pyrene (100 mg/kg, 340 ug/l), and TPH (27,800 mg/kg, 912,000 ug/l).
Geology: Fill material overlying poorly sorted medium to fine grain sand; water table at approximately 10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 3,000 Sq. ft area at 7-12.5 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  In soil, TPH reduced by 58%, BaP equivalent by 89%; TPH & PAHs were ND in groundwater.

Former MGP Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 23

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Site Location: Long Island, NY
Contamination: VOCs, primarily BTEX & Naphthalene (BTEX 501,000 ppm in soil, 300 ppm in GW).
Geology: Fine to coarse grain sand with gravels underlain by 2-6 ft thick peat layer.
Area Treated: Approximately 29,200 sq. ft at an interval of 5-12 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide BTEX & Naphthalene in soil were reduced from 644,498 ppm to 12 ppm. This site is currently undergoing a long term monitoring program under NYSDEC review.

Former Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 24

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Site Location: Western Florida
Contamination: Benzene (3,736 ppb); Ethylbenzene (5,768 ppb); Toluene (10,700 ppb); Xylenes (9,984 ppb); and Naphthalene (1,372 ppb).
Geology: General shallow subsurface conditions at the site consist of fine sands and silty sands; water table at approximately 5-7 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 12,000 Sq. ft area at 4-15 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Greater than 99% reduction of total VOCs and SVOCs site-wide following ISOTEC pilot and full-scale treatment programs. All concentrations reduced to below the most stringent FDEP groundwater quality standards.

Former Industrial Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 27

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Site Location: Eatontown, NJ
Contamination: TCE, PCE, cis-1,2-DCE, BTEX, and PCBs. Average Concentrations: GW VOC (75,204 ug/l); Soil VOC (2,402 mg/kg); GW PCB (ND); and Soil PCB (4,095 mg/kg).
Geology: Sands and silt from ground surface to a depth of ~45 ft bgs underlain by sandy clays. Depth to groundwater is ~7-8 ft bgs; GW flow is moderate and to the north.
Area Treated: ~32,600 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~5-20 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  For soil, VOC reduction was achieved at 10 of 12 monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging between 75% to greater than 99%. PCB reduction rates ranged from 35% to greater than 99% at 10 of 12 locations. For GW, VOC reduction was achieved in all 8 monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging from 70% to greater than 99%. PCBs were present below detection limits in GW. Baseline versus post-treatment mass calculations indicate an approximate 70,600 lbs mass destruction in soils and groundwater within the target treatment area.

Superfund Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 30

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Site Location: Indiana
Contamination: Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX), Diesel Range Organics (DRO) and Gasoline Range Organics(GRO). Concentrations: Maximum GW concentrations (9,700 ppb) BTEX; (21,000 ppb) DRO; and (40,000 ppb) GRO. Soil levels as high as (1,000 ppm) BTEX; (2,100 ppm) DRO; and (920 ppm) GRO).
Geology: Sands and gravel from surface to 3-6 ft bgs, underlain by a 2-6 foot thick clay-silt peat layer, followed by fine to coarse sands to 24 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~36,000 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~14-20 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  For soil, COC reduction was achieved at all 12 monitoring locations with individual reduction rates ranging between 20% to greater than 99%. Total average soil concentration reduction rates ranged from 94% to greater than 99% for VOCs, DRO and GRO. For GW, COC reduction was achieved at 11 of 12 monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging from 15% to greater than 99%. Total average gw concentration reduction rates ranged from 68% to 83% for VOCs, DRO and GRO. Baseline versus post-treatment mass calculations estimated an approximately 5,719 lbs mass destruction in soils and groundwater within the target treatment area.

Active Gas Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 31

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Site Location: Florida
Contamination: Benzene (3 ppb); Toluene (127 ppb); Ethylbenzene (266 ppb); and Total Xylenes (3,028 ppb).
Geology: Fine-to coarse-grained sand interbedded with layers of clayey to silty sand from ground surface to a depth of ~68 ft bgs underlain by weathered limestone. Depth to groundwater is ~25 ft bgs; GW flow is moderate and to the south-southwest.
Area Treated: ~3,600 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~26-35 ft bgs.e
Effectiveness:  GW VOC reduction rates exceeded 99% in all three locations. Treatment area VOC concentrations were reduced from 3,424 ppb to 17 ppb.

Former Gas Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 32

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Site Location: Tampa, Florida
Contamination: Naphtalene (194 ug/l); MTBE (100 ug/l); Benzene (942 ug/l); Toluene (2,750 ug/l); Ethylbenzene (784 ug/l); and Total Xylenes (2,040 ug/l).
Geology: Site is composed of clayey fine sands, silts and clays. White to brown fine grained sand to mottled brown clayey sand from land surface to 12 ft bgs. Tan to grey sandy clay to 18 ft bgs. Clay from 18 to 30 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 660 square feet (sf) area - 10-20 ft bgs treatment interval.
Effectiveness:  Substantial GW VOC reduction of higher than 99% was achieved after only one treatment application. Treatment area total VOC concentration was reduced from 6,810 ppb to 6.2 ppb. The entire project was completed for under $40,000 dollars and the client has recommended that the site enters a natural attenuation monitoring program.

Former Air Force Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 33

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Site Location: Rome, NY
Contamination: Chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene(1,2-DCB), 1,3-dichlorobenzene(1,3-DCB), 1,4-dichlorobenzene(1,4-DCB). GW Average VOC Concentrations: CB (1,333 ug/l), 1,2-DCB (94 ug/l), 1,3-DCB (7 mg/l) and 1,4-DCB (111ug/l).
Geology: Silty sands with minor quantities of clay, bedrock approximately 25 feet bgs. Depth to groundwater is ~10-12 ft bgs; GW flow is moderate and to the southwest.
Area Treated: ~8,000 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~10-25 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  For GW, VOC reduction was achieved at all monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging between 39% to 99%. Average VOC concentrations were reduced by 78%. Average concentrations of CB were treated from a baseline concentration of 1,333 µg/l to 263 µg/l. Conservative mass calculation estimated between 5.9 -10.5 lbs VOC mass removal following Phase I and between 17.4 -17.6 lbs. of VOC mass removal following Phase II.

Gasoline Station Release

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 44

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Site Location: Frenchglen, Oregon
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Gasoline (TPH-G), 1,2,4-methylbenzene and Benzene.
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sands and silty sands with very dense silty sand layers. GW is encountered at approximately 6-7 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered an injection well network utilizing 28 injection points targeting two depth intervals at each location.
Effectiveness:  TPH-G mass was reduced by approximately 71% and benzene mass was reduced by 90%.

Active Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 45

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Site Location: New York
Contamination: BTEX
Geology: Dense fine gravelly sand with varying amounts of cobbles and silts. Low hydraulic conductivity in the range of 2.01 x 10-4 centimeters per second (cm/s) to 1.97 x 10-5 cm/s. Depth to water is approximately 21-25 feet bgs with flow in the northwest direction.
Area Treated: MFR+XFR Technology. One, 3-day injection event. Injected into 1 permanent well using pressure pulse technology and 2 wells using standard pumping technology.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program results indicated that injections utilizing pressure pulse technology were completed with no observed reagent day-lighting even though substantial reagent volumes (2,550 gallons) were injected into a single well and flow rates were gradually increased. Injections into the same well using standard pumping technology resulted in day-lighting after only 500 gallons.

Former Military Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 47

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Site Location: Northern California
Contamination: Dichlorobenzene isomers and VOCs. Primary COCs were 1,2-DCB and 1,4-DCB.
Geology: The subsurface is comprised of interbedded layers of silt, silty sand and sand.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered a portion of the 11-acre site containing dissolved phase COCs. The target vertical treatment zone covered the 9-15 feet bgs depth interval. Approximately 360 temporary DP points were utilized to perform ISCO throughout the site.
Effectiveness:  Concentrations of 1,4-DCB and 1,2-DCB in groundwater were reduced by 99% and 96%, respectively.

Gasoline Station Release

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 49

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Site Location: Homer, Louisiana
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Gasoline (TPH-G) and Benzene (350 mg/kg in soil; 1,435 µg/L in GW).
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sandy clays. GW is encountered at approximately 12 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 2,000 sq. feet covering the 15-18 and 18-21 depth intervals.
Effectiveness:  Benzene concentrations were reduced by 85% and 90% in MW-3 and MW-5, respectively. Full-Scale ISCO remediation program reduced the TPH-G mass by approximately 2,500 lbs. (from 2,800 lbs. to 300 lbs.). Based on contaminant concentration reductions at the site, a No Further Action (NFA) determination was made by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ).

Former Retail Petroleum Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 50

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Site Location: Paramount, California
Contamination: Tert-butyl-alcohol (TBA).
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sandy silt and silty clay to a depth of approximately 25 feet bgs underlain by silty, fine-sand to the total depth explored of 40 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 11,000 sq. feet covering the 26-37 feet bgs depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Average TBA concentration in GW reduced by 96%.

Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 51

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Site Location: Fort Worth, Texas
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) and BTEX contaminants.
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sand and silty-sand from the surface to a depth of 5 feet bgs. This unit is underlain by a silty-clay, approximately 5-10 feet thick, that acts as a confining layer to groundwater present in a clayey-sand found beneath the silty-clay.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 3,000 sq. feet covering the 22-30 feet bgs depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Average TPH and BTEX concentrations in soil reduced by 86% and 83%, respectively.

Former Bakery Operation

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 55

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Site Location: Antioch, California
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Gasoline (TPH-G) and Benzene. Concentrations as high as 15,000 µg/L for TPH-G and 2,200 µg/L for Benzene.
Geology: The subsurface is compromised mostly of silt from ground surface-11 feet bgs, and clay from 11-36 feet bgs. The clay is underlain by sandy-silt to approximately 53 feet bgs. GW is encountered at approximately 36 feet bgs; flow ranging from northeasterly to northwesterly.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 4,000 sq. feet covering the 22-34 and 36-44 depth intervals.
Effectiveness:  Benzene concentrations were reduced by 95% and 97% in VW-2 and SVE-1, respectively. TPH-G concentrations were reduced by 81% and 91% in VW-2 and SVE-1, respectively.

Residential Lakefront Property

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 56

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Site Location: Medford, New Jersey
Contamination: Benzene-3,500 ppb (GW), 5,000 ppb (Soil); Toluene-5,200 ppb (GW), 160,000 ppb (Soil); Ethylbenzene-1,100 ppb (GW), 120,000 ppb (Soil); Total Xylenes-5,700 ppb (GW), 590,000 ppb (Soil); Total VOC TICs-4,140 ppb (GW), 850,000 ppb (Soil); and TPH-15,400 ppb (Soil).
Geology: Targeted portion of the aquifer is composed of clayey silts. GW is encountered at approximately 4-6 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Three areas of the property were treated, including the garage area underneath the residence. Target vertical treatment area between 4-15 feet bgs.
Effectiveness:  Maximum GW VOC reduction was achieved in MW-1 with each individual BTEXN compound treated by greater than 99% and total VOC TICs treated to ND value. Results from MW-2 showed reduction in VOCs ranging from 48%->99%; naphthalene showed an increase in concentration. Total VOC TICs were reduced by 55%. Post-treatment soil samples indicated reduction of all COCs except for total xylenes to below criteria in the sample collected north of the building; all COCs below criteria except for benzene in the sample collected beneath the residence; and all COCs treated below criteria in the sample collected south of the building.

Residential Property

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 57

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Site Location: Blackwood, New Jersey
Contamination: #2 Fuel Oil Related Compounds. VOCs-1,169 ppb (GW), SVOCs-2,460 ppb (GW), VOC TICs-611 ppb (GW), SVOC TICs-50,100 ppb (GW), and TPH-32,000 ppm (Soil). LNAPL sheen has been observed in site GW.
Geology: Targeted portion of the aquifer is composed of fine, medium and coarse sands to approximately 24 ft bgs. GW is encountered at approximately 17-18 feet bgs.
Area Treated: ~1,330 sq. ft at a vertical interval of 17-24 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Four existing and three newly installed monitoring wells were used to measure treatment effectiveness. Three locations showed low to ND levels. The four remaining locations showed reductions ranging from 93%-98% for VOCs, 88%-100% for SVOCs, 41%-95% for VOC TICs and 72%-96% for SVOC TICs. Two locations showed VOC increases.

Former Waste Pit Disposal Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 59

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Site Location: Western Coast of Denmark
Contamination: PCE; TCE; TPH; Benzene, Toluene and Xylenes (BTX); anilines; sulfonamides and barbiturates. Significant amount of COCs exist as DNAPLs. Average PCE soil concentration in Layer 2.1 was 3,100 mg/kg and about 280 mg/kg in Layer 2.2.
Geology: Fine sands from ground surface to 3.5 mbgs (Layer 2.1), underlain by Layer 2.2 from 3.5-15 mbgs consisting of sands and gravel. Depth to water approximately 3-4 mbgs.
Area Treated: 8m x 8m test cell area (Pit 1) consisting of Layer 2.1 (3-6 mgbs) and Layer 2.2 (6-9 mbgs).
Effectiveness:  Post treatment pilot study results indicated significant reduction in overall mass was achieved in both Layers 2.1 and 2.2.

Active Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 61

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Site Location: Long Island, New York
Contamination: Petroleum related VOC's in soil and groundwater. BTEX.
Geology: Fine to coarse grained sands, with gravel 0-30 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 15-30 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program is still ongoing and no results are currently available.

Former Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 62

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Site Location: Upstate, New York
Contamination: VOCs: Primarily toluene, heptanes and methyl cyclohexane. Concentrations of toluene have been as high as 180,000 ug/l in groundwater and 13,000 ug/kg in site soils. Historical evidence of free phase product observed but no significant accumulations in the recent past.
Geology: Silty clays with layers of fine to coarse sands and gravel from ground surface to approximately 15 feet bgs. Depth to water approximately 7-9 feet bgs.
Area Treated: 50 x 100 foot area down to 8 feet bgs. 5,000 ft3 or 185 yd3 area.
Effectiveness:  The spraying application was performed as a secondary treatment remedy to target any residual COCs remaining at the bottom of the pit after soil excavation activities (primary treatment remedy) were performed. Testing of the excavated pit area is not scheduled to be performed.

Former Distribution Terminal

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 63

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Site Location: New Jersey
Contamination: Methylene Chloride; BTEX; TCE; MTBE; TCA
Geology: Fractured Bedrock
Area Treated: Area of concern extends vertically from approximately 17 to 50 feet bgs over three bedrock fractures.
Effectiveness:  Substantial GW VOC reduction from 90% to 99% achieved in injection area monitoring wells. Estimated 851 lbs of COC mass including trapped DNAPL mass treated.

O&G Superfund Drum Reconditioning Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 67

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Site Location: Kingston, New Hampshire
Contamination: VOCs, primarily – BTEX, PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCA, & 1,4-Dioxane. VOC levels as high as 20,000 ug/l.
Geology: Site geology consists of fine to medium sand, some silt, and trace gravel with bedrock encountered at ~18-35 ft bgs. Depth to water is approximately 3-6 ft bgs with flow in the southeastern direction.
Area Treated: Two treatment areas; Area A (~17,400sq. ft) & Area B (~1,800 sq. ft)
Effectiveness:  No further injections are scheduled to take place at the site.