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CERCLA Superfund Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 12

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Site Location: Midwestern U.S.
Contamination: 1,1-Dichloroethene (1,780 ppb); Methylene Chloride (3,180 ppb); Toluene (2,776 ppb); 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (33,100 ppb); Trichloroethene (29,400 ppb).
Geology: Saturated sand and gravel.
Area Treated: 1,500 Sq. ft area at 10-27 ft bgs vertical depth interval plus ex-situ treatment of 18,000 gallons purge water in a Frac Tank.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide total VOCs and TICs reduced from 74,262 ppb to 7,347 ppb (90%).

Department of Defense Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 14

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Site Location: Eastern PA
Contamination: Carbon Tetrachloride (1500 ppb); and Chloroform (190 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Sandy silt with some gravel to a depth of about 6 ft; below this it changes mostly to silt with some sand underlain by weathered bedrock. The water table is approximately 6-7 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~5,650 Sq. ft area at 5-20 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide Carbon Tetrachloride reduced by 86% and Chloroform by 76%.

Military Jet Maintenance Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 19

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Site Location: Tulsa, Oklahoma
Contamination: TPH in soil ranged from 5,000 mg/kg to 8,000 mg/kg
Geology: Coarse, sandy soil and native fill underneath an 8-inch concrete slab
Area Treated: 3,750 Sq. ft area at 1.0-2.5 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  TPH was reduced by >90%.

Naval Air Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 20

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Site Location: Southern CA
Contamination: Trichloroethene (96,000 ppb in groundwater).
Geology: Poorly sorted medium to fine grain sand; water table at approximately 20 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 1,250 Sq. ft - 3 treatment intervals, 20-30, 35-45, 50-60 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Overall 60% reduction in most heavily contaminated zone with one well showing 95% reduction.

Naval Air Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 28

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Site Location: Mechanicsburg, PA
Contamination: Bedrock aquifer impacted with VOCs, SVOCs, PAHs, PCBs and pesticides. Primary site COCs include Chlorobenzene (817 ug/l), cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (1,673 ug/l), 1,4–Dichlorobenzene (51 ug/l), Vinyl Chloride (141ug/l) and Trichloroethene (3,712 ug/l).
Geology: Clay and silt extends from ground surface to 30 ft bgs underlain by fractured limestone bedrock. Depth to groundwater is approx. 30 ft bgs; hydraulic conductivity is between 4.3x10-4 cm/sec and 8.6x10-3 cm/sec.
Area Treated: Approx. 130,000 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from approx. 30 ft bgs to 100 ft bgs within the fractured bedrock.
Effectiveness:  87% site-wide reduction of VOCs from average baseline. 20 wells sampled. CB below RGs in 15, 1,2-DCE and VC below RGs in 12 wells, TCE below RGs in 8 wells, Aroclor 1260 below RGs in 14 wells, 1,4-DCB below RGs in 19 wells, 4,4-DDT below RGs in 18 wells and alpha-BHC below RGs in 19 wells.

Superfund Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 30

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Site Location: Indiana
Contamination: Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX), Diesel Range Organics (DRO) and Gasoline Range Organics(GRO). Concentrations: Maximum GW concentrations (9,700 ppb) BTEX; (21,000 ppb) DRO; and (40,000 ppb) GRO. Soil levels as high as (1,000 ppm) BTEX; (2,100 ppm) DRO; and (920 ppm) GRO).
Geology: Sands and gravel from surface to 3-6 ft bgs, underlain by a 2-6 foot thick clay-silt peat layer, followed by fine to coarse sands to 24 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~36,000 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~14-20 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  For soil, COC reduction was achieved at all 12 monitoring locations with individual reduction rates ranging between 20% to greater than 99%. Total average soil concentration reduction rates ranged from 94% to greater than 99% for VOCs, DRO and GRO. For GW, COC reduction was achieved at 11 of 12 monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging from 15% to greater than 99%. Total average gw concentration reduction rates ranged from 68% to 83% for VOCs, DRO and GRO. Baseline versus post-treatment mass calculations estimated an approximately 5,719 lbs mass destruction in soils and groundwater within the target treatment area.

Former Air Force Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 33

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Site Location: Rome, NY
Contamination: Chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene(1,2-DCB), 1,3-dichlorobenzene(1,3-DCB), 1,4-dichlorobenzene(1,4-DCB). GW Average VOC Concentrations: CB (1,333 ug/l), 1,2-DCB (94 ug/l), 1,3-DCB (7 mg/l) and 1,4-DCB (111ug/l).
Geology: Silty sands with minor quantities of clay, bedrock approximately 25 feet bgs. Depth to groundwater is ~10-12 ft bgs; GW flow is moderate and to the southwest.
Area Treated: ~8,000 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~10-25 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  For GW, VOC reduction was achieved at all monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging between 39% to 99%. Average VOC concentrations were reduced by 78%. Average concentrations of CB were treated from a baseline concentration of 1,333 µg/l to 263 µg/l. Conservative mass calculation estimated between 5.9 -10.5 lbs VOC mass removal following Phase I and between 17.4 -17.6 lbs. of VOC mass removal following Phase II.

Active Air Force Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 35

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Site Location: Middle, Georgia
Contamination: VOCs including Chlorobenzene (7,412 µg/l ), TCE (2,455 µg/l ), cis-1,2-DCE (7,039 µg/l ), DCB Isomers, arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium and SVOCs including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Geology: Fill material consisting of clay, silt and sand from ground surface to a depth of approximately 10 feet bgs underlain by a clay unit to approximately 40 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Source area and plume (estimated to be 307,500 sq ft). Target treatment interval from 30-50 feet bgs for majority of site and from 10-20 feet bgs for the southern most areas of the site.
Effectiveness:  A 90% reduction in all 10 compliance wells was noted after 5th full-scale injection event. The 10 compliance wells selected for the site performance criteria remediation goals showed reductions ranging from 70%-99%.

Active Air Force Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 36

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Site Location: East Coast, United States
Contamination: Chlorinated VOCs including PCE, TCE, Vinyl Chloride and cis-1,2-DCE.
Geology: Fine to medium silty and clayey sand matrix underlain by a sandy clay semi-confining unit at 35 feet bgs. Average hydraulic conductivity was 1.02 x 10 -2 cm/sec in the shallow water bearing unit. Depth to GW is approximately 15-20 feet bgs; with flow in the easterly direction.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 4,500 sq ft targeting the 20-35 feet bgs vertical interval.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program results indicated a sharp reduction in the concentration of VOCs, with overall site-wide contamination reduced by over 87% on average and over 92% in the treatment area.

Active Military Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 38

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Site Location: East Coast, United States
Contamination: Carbon Tetrachloride (500 µg/l ); and Chloroform (18 µg/l) in groundwater.
Geology: Fine to medium silty and clayey sand matrix underlain by a sandy clay semi-confining unit at 35 feet bgs. Average hydraulic conductivity was 1.00 x 10 -4 cm/sec. The water table is approximately 4.5-12 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~9,000 Sq. ft area at 20-35 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program results indicated an overall VOC destruction of 87% in the treatment area with chloroform being treated to ND values.

Former Reprocessing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 43

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Site Location: South Florida (Superfund Site)
Contamination: TCE (20,000 µg/L in GW; 5,200 mg/kg in soil) and TCA (15,000 µg/L in GW; 3,200 mg/kg in soil). DNAPL present at some locations.
Geology: Oolitic limestone, oolitic & quartz-grain sandstone, and wackestone. Depth to GW approximately 8-10 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered an injection well network utilizing 8 nested well injection points targeting four depth intervals (20-30 feet bgs, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 feet bgs).
Effectiveness:  TCE and TCA in soils reduced by 86% and 94%, respectively. TCE and TCA in groundwater reduced by 97% and 98%, respectively.

Former Military Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 47

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Site Location: Northern California
Contamination: Dichlorobenzene isomers and VOCs. Primary COCs were 1,2-DCB and 1,4-DCB.
Geology: The subsurface is comprised of interbedded layers of silt, silty sand and sand.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered a portion of the 11-acre site containing dissolved phase COCs. The target vertical treatment zone covered the 9-15 feet bgs depth interval. Approximately 360 temporary DP points were utilized to perform ISCO throughout the site.
Effectiveness:  Concentrations of 1,4-DCB and 1,2-DCB in groundwater were reduced by 99% and 96%, respectively.

Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 51

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Site Location: Fort Worth, Texas
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) and BTEX contaminants.
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sand and silty-sand from the surface to a depth of 5 feet bgs. This unit is underlain by a silty-clay, approximately 5-10 feet thick, that acts as a confining layer to groundwater present in a clayey-sand found beneath the silty-clay.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 3,000 sq. feet covering the 22-30 feet bgs depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Average TPH and BTEX concentrations in soil reduced by 86% and 83%, respectively.

Vanderberg Air Force Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 54

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Site Location: California
Contamination: TCE impacted groundwater.
Geology: Subsurface is compromised of homogenous sands with a few thin silt and clay lenses to a depth of approximately 22 feet bgs, underlain by a clay layer. Depth to GW is approximately 11 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 10,000 sq. feet targeting the 12-16 and 16-21 feet bgs depth intervals.
Effectiveness:  Average TCE concentrations were reduced by 87% throughout the site with one location showing a >99% reduction.

Active Military Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 58

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Site Location: Virginia
Contamination: 1,1-DCA; 1,2-DCB; 1,4-DCB; 1,1-DCE; 1,1,1-TCA; 1,2,4-TCB; TCE and VC. Total VOCs as high as 51,095 ug/l in MW-2.
Geology: Upper layer consisting of a mixture of very fine silty clay, clayey sands and sandy clay underlined by a mostly sand unit. A third layer consisting mostly of clay served as a confining layer. Average hydraulic conductivity was 4.8 x 10-3 ft/min. Depth of water approximately 1-4 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 20,000 sq. feet targeting 11-19 ft. bgs depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program results indicated a sharp reduction in VOCs, in four out of the six monitoring wells with reductions ranging from 55-93%. Most significant reduction was noted in MW-2 which went from a baseline value of 51,095 ug/l to 4,017 ug/l, a 92% reduction.

Former Waste Pit Disposal Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 59

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Site Location: Western Coast of Denmark
Contamination: PCE; TCE; TPH; Benzene, Toluene and Xylenes (BTX); anilines; sulfonamides and barbiturates. Significant amount of COCs exist as DNAPLs. Average PCE soil concentration in Layer 2.1 was 3,100 mg/kg and about 280 mg/kg in Layer 2.2.
Geology: Fine sands from ground surface to 3.5 mbgs (Layer 2.1), underlain by Layer 2.2 from 3.5-15 mbgs consisting of sands and gravel. Depth to water approximately 3-4 mbgs.
Area Treated: 8m x 8m test cell area (Pit 1) consisting of Layer 2.1 (3-6 mgbs) and Layer 2.2 (6-9 mbgs).
Effectiveness:  Post treatment pilot study results indicated significant reduction in overall mass was achieved in both Layers 2.1 and 2.2.