INJECTION

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Warehousing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 1

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Site Location: Union, NJ
Contamination: BTEX (28,161 ppb); Methyl t-butyl ether (7,240 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Unconfined silty layer.
Area Treated: Approximately 5,000 sq. ft between 0 - 20 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Each compound was treated to below its NJDEP standard; site received No Further Action letter.

Manufacturing and Warehouse Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 2

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Site Location: Passaic, NJ
Contamination: trans-1,2-Dichloroethene (18.8 ppb); cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (317,200 ppb); Xylenes (3,400 ppb); Ethylbenzene (2,000 ppb); Trichloroethene (78 ppb); and Vinyl Chloride (4,224 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Fine silt and clay layer; water table at approximately 8-10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 1000 sq. ft .
Effectiveness:  Site-wide total VOCs were reduced from 278,849 ppb to 178 ppb.

Former Electronic Transformer Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 3

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Site Location: Ocean County, NJ
Contamination: Chloroform (25 ppb); 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (33 ppb); Trichloroethene (493 ppb); and Tetrachloroethene (212 ppb)
Geology: Sandy, silty, clay stratum (3 to 18 ft bgs) overlying basalt bedrock. Water table is at approximately 10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 1,400 sq. ft.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide total VOCs were reduced by >70% with chlorinated VOCs decreased from 793 ppb to 269 ppb. NJDEP issued No Further Action letter and closed the case.

Former Sign Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 4

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Site Location: Denver, CO
Contamination: BTEX (24,595 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Confined clay layers with permeable sand lenses.
Area Treated: ~9,600 sq. ft at a vertical interval of 2-8 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Overall BTEX reduced from 24,595 ppb to 89 ppb. Each COC was treated to ND or well below its cleanup level throughout the plume. State of Colorado issued an Unrestricted No Further Action letter to the property.

Truck Rental Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 5

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Site Location: Oklahoma City, OK
Contamination: BTEX up to 4,100 ppb plus free product in some locations.
Geology: Alluvial sand; water table is approximately 12 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~3,000 sq. ft at an interval of 20-30 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Up to 93% reduction in total VOCs site-wide.

Former Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 6

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Site Location: Northern NJ
Contamination: Tetrachloroethene (203 ppb).
Geology: Unconsolidated zone above fractured bedrock, "Zone A"
Area Treated: ~20,000 sq. ft in Zone A (22'-26') and bedrock (38'-67').
Effectiveness:  Total VOCs reduced by 74% in Zone A & 58% in bedrock.

Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 7

Site Location: Southern Colorado
Contamination: Tetrachloroethene - PCE (up to 19,800 ppb in the plume; higher conc. in selected hot spots).
Geology: Sand + Clay formation up to 30 ft underlain by fractured shale; water table is at approximately 25 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~ 15,000 sq.ft with an interval of 20-30 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Achieved over 75% reduction of PCE in DNAPL source area when both SVE and P/T systems failed to meet the remedial goals.

Lakefront Residence

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 8

Site Location: Sussex County, NJ
Contamination: Fuel Oil #2, TPH approximately 12,000 to 20,000 ppm in soil.
Geology: Fractured bedrock formation at 4 ft bgs containing perched water table.
Area Treated: ~1,800 sq. ft at a vertical interval of 2-12 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide TPH was reduced by 82% with 96% in hot spot area. The property received a "No Further Action letter."

Utilities Authority

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 9

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Site Location: Southern NJ
Contamination: Toluene (87 ppb); Ethylbenzene (91 ppb); Xylenes (1,260 ppb); Naphthalene (27 ppb); and 2-Methylnaphthalene (5 ppb).
Geology: Sandy formation; water table is approximately 9-10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 1000 sq. ft at an interval of 10-18 ft bgs.
Effectiveness: All COCs were treated to below NJDEP groundwater criteria with VOCs reduced by 99% and base neutral compounds by 76%..

Active Quarry Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 10

Site Location: Sussex County, NJ
Contamination: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (341 ppb); 1,2-Dichlorobenzene (2,760 ppb); Naphthalene (279 ppb)
Geology: Fractured bedrock underlying glacial overburden 9-20 ft thick; water table is at approximately 20-25 ft bgs within the bedrock
Area Treated: Approximately 1200 sq. ft at an interval from 20-65 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide groundwater contamination reduced by 98%. All COCs were treated to ND or well below NJDEP groundwater criteria.

Former Maintenance and Repair Garage

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 11

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Site Location: West Chester, NY
Contamination: BTEX (4,869 ppb) and MTBE (451 ppb).
Geology: Very fine to coarse sand and gravel underlain by fractured bedrock. Water table is approximately 3-10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: - Two separate areas: 2,400 sq ft BTEX plume and a downgradient 17,600 sq ft MTBE plume targeting the 11 - 20 ft bgs interval.
Effectiveness:  66% reduction of total BTEX and 62% of MTBE in hot spots, and below NYSDEC cleanup criteria in downgradient area. NYSDEC issued No Further Action letter.

CERCLA Superfund Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 12

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Site Location: Midwestern U.S.
Contamination: 1,1-Dichloroethene (1,780 ppb); Methylene Chloride (3,180 ppb); Toluene (2,776 ppb); 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (33,100 ppb); Trichloroethene (29,400 ppb).
Geology: Saturated sand and gravel.
Area Treated: 1,500 Sq. ft area at 10-27 ft bgs vertical depth interval plus ex-situ treatment of 18,000 gallons purge water in a Frac Tank.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide total VOCs and TICs reduced from 74,262 ppb to 7,347 ppb (90%).

Railroad Maintenance Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 13

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Site Location: North Creek, NY
Contamination: Petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.
Geology: Saturated sand and gravel, located 20 feet from banks of Hudson River.
Area Treated: 13,800 Sq. ft area at 2.5-12 fbgs vertical depth interval. Depth to water approximately 8 - 10 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Total VOCs reduced by 83.1% & PAHs by 81.5%. Site received Case closure. Project received Grand Conceptor Award and National Recognition Award.

Department of Defense Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 14

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Site Location: Eastern PA
Contamination: Carbon Tetrachloride (1500 ppb); and Chloroform (190 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Sandy silt with some gravel to a depth of about 6 ft; below this it changes mostly to silt with some sand underlain by weathered bedrock. The water table is approximately 6-7 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~5,650 Sq. ft area at 5-20 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide Carbon Tetrachloride reduced by 86% and Chloroform by 76%.

Manufacturing and Warehouse Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 15

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Site Location: Bergen, NJ
Contamination: Trichloroethene (19,805 ppb); trans & cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (113,660 ppb) and Vinyl Chloride (17,570 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Silty soil, saturated zone from 5'-40' bgs; water table is at approximately 5-8 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 5,400 Sq. ft area at 5-40 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Total VOCs reduced by 98% from 151,476 ppb to 3,180 ppb.

Former Dry Cleaner

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 16

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Site Location: South Florida
Contamination: Trichloroethene (14,555 ppb); Tetrachloroethene (26,598 ppb); Vinyl Chloride (18,112 ppb); and Cis-1,2-dichloroethene (283,219 ppb).
Geology: Medium grain quartz sand with silty soil & limestone fragments to 42 feet bgs; indurated carbonate sandstone & limestone to 83' bgs; water table at 6 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~24,000 Sq. ft area at 5-40 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Total VOC's reduced by 87% from 346,204 ppb to 41,976 ppb.

Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 17

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Site Location: Northwestern Florida
Contamination: Benzene (29,942 ppb); Toluene (25,009 ppb); and Ethylbenzene (2,942 ppb).
Geology: Compact fine to medium grained silty clayey sands from land surface to 6 ft bgs followed by a clay lens; water table is approximately 6-7 ft bgs in source area.
Area Treated: 14,130 Sq. ft area at 3-17 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Benzene was reduced by >90%; Ethylbenzene and Toluene were treated to below FDEP criteria in the treated area.

Operational Dry Cleaner

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 18

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Site Location: NE Florida
Contamination: Trichloroethene (200 ppb); Tetrachloroethene (54 ppb); and Trans 1,2-Dichloroethene (42 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Undifferentiated sediments consisting of sand and shell with some clay and clay-rich layers; water table is at approximately 8-10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 8,500 Sq. ft area at 5-40 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  All contaminants were treated to below applicable FDEP groundwater quality criteria (MCLs) throughout the site following ISOTEC pilot and full-scale treatment programs. A "Site Rehabilitation Completion Order" was issued.

Military Jet Maintenance Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 19

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Site Location: Tulsa, Oklahoma
Contamination: TPH in soil ranged from 5,000 mg/kg to 8,000 mg/kg
Geology: Coarse, sandy soil and native fill underneath an 8-inch concrete slab
Area Treated: 3,750 Sq. ft area at 1.0-2.5 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  TPH was reduced by >90%.

Naval Air Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 20

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Site Location: Southern CA
Contamination: Trichloroethene (96,000 ppb in groundwater).
Geology: Poorly sorted medium to fine grain sand; water table at approximately 20 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 1,250 Sq. ft - 3 treatment intervals, 20-30, 35-45, 50-60 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  - Overall 60% reduction in most heavily contaminated zone with one well showing 95% reduction.

Former MGP Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 21

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Site Location: Long Beach, CA
Contamination: PAHs (2,484 mg/kg) including Benzo(a)Pyrene (100 mg/kg, 340 ug/l), and TPH (27,800 mg/kg, 912,000 ug/l).
Geology: Fill material overlying poorly sorted medium to fine grain sand; water table at approximately 10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 3,000 Sq. ft area at 7-12.5 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  In soil, TPH reduced by 58%, BaP equivalent by 89%; TPH & PAHs were ND in groundwater.

Former Cosmetic Manufacturing Plant

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 22

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Site Location: Central NJ
Contamination: Ethanol (354,943 ppb), Trichloroethene (31,162 ppb), Methylene Chloride (10,200 ppb), Trichlorofluoromethane (51,762 ppb) & 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (11,166 ppb).
Geology: Fractured bedrock aquifer. Water table is at approximately 14-25 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Treatment interval 20-70ft bgs for pilot. On going full scale is 100,000 sq ft and 20-70 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide total VOCs reduced by 93% from 108,380 ppb to 7,328 ppb. Site-wide Ethanol concentrations reduced by 99% from 354,943 ppb to 4,591 ppb.

Former MGP Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 23

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Site Location: Long Island, NY
Contamination: VOCs, primarily BTEX & Naphthalene (BTEX 501,000 ppm in soil, 300 ppm in GW).
Geology: Fine to coarse grain sand with gravels underlain by 2-6 ft thick peat layer.
Area Treated: Approximately 29,200 sq. ft at an interval of 5-12 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide BTEX & Naphthalene in soil were reduced from 644,498 ppm to 12 ppm. This site is currently undergoing a long term monitoring program under NYSDEC review.

Former Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 24

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Site Location: Western Florida
Contamination: Benzene (3,736 ppb); Ethylbenzene (5,768 ppb); Toluene (10,700 ppb); Xylenes (9,984 ppb); and Naphthalene (1,372 ppb).
Geology: General shallow subsurface conditions at the site consist of fine sands and silty sands; water table at approximately 5-7 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 12,000 Sq. ft area at 4-15 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Greater than 99% reduction of total VOCs and SVOCs site-wide following ISOTEC pilot and full-scale treatment programs. All concentrations reduced to below the most stringent FDEP groundwater quality standards.

Former Dry Cleaner

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 25

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Site Location: NE Florida
Contamination: Trichloroethene (350 ppb); Tetrachloroethene (48 ppb); Vinyl Chloride (38 ppb); Cis-1,2 Dichloroethene (2,901 ppb);and Trans-1,2-Dichloroethene (146 ppb).
Geology: General shallow subsurface conditions at the site consist of very fine sands; water table at approximately 3 feet bgs.
Area Treated: 11,250 square feet at 3 to 20 feet bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  90% reduction of total VOCs site wide. All concentrations reduced to below the FDEP natural attenuation default concentrations.

Active Dry Cleaner

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 26

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Site Location: Atlanta, GA
Contamination: Average Concentrations: Trichloroethene (117 ug/l); Tetrachloroethene (1,444 ug/l); and Cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (100 ug/l).
Geology: Sands in the vadose and the saturated zones and fractured rock in the deeper zone. Depth to groundwater is ~18 ft bgs; hydraulic conductivity is 5.9 ft/day.
Area Treated: ~8,000 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~2-18 ft bgs (unsaturated zone), ~18-55 ft bgs (saturated zone), and up to 80 ft bgs (fractured rock).
Effectiveness:  GW: 83% reduction of total VOCs site-wide after 1st treatment event, which improved to 89% reduction (except MW-29) after 2nd treatment event. Soil: Treated to ND concentrations.

Former Industrial Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 27

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Site Location: Eatontown, NJ
Contamination: TCE, PCE, cis-1,2-DCE, BTEX, and PCBs. Average Concentrations: GW VOC (75,204 ug/l); Soil VOC (2,402 mg/kg); GW PCB (ND); and Soil PCB (4,095 mg/kg).
Geology: Sands and silt from ground surface to a depth of ~45 ft bgs underlain by sandy clays. Depth to groundwater is ~7-8 ft bgs; GW flow is moderate and to the north.
Area Treated: ~32,600 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~5-20 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  For soil, VOC reduction was achieved at 10 of 12 monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging between 75% to greater than 99%. PCB reduction rates ranged from 35% to greater than 99% at 10 of 12 locations. For GW, VOC reduction was achieved in all 8 monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging from 70% to greater than 99%. PCBs were present below detection limits in GW. Baseline versus post-treatment mass calculations indicate an approximate 70,600 lbs mass destruction in soils and groundwater within the target treatment area.

Naval Air Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 28

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Site Location: Mechanicsburg, PA
Contamination: Bedrock aquifer impacted with VOCs, SVOCs, PAHs, PCBs and pesticides. Primary site COCs include Chlorobenzene (817 ug/l), cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (1,673 ug/l), 1,4–Dichlorobenzene (51 ug/l), Vinyl Chloride (141ug/l) and Trichloroethene (3,712 ug/l).
Geology: Clay and silt extends from ground surface to 30 ft bgs underlain by fractured limestone bedrock. Depth to groundwater is approx. 30 ft bgs; hydraulic conductivity is between 4.3x10-4 cm/sec and 8.6x10-3 cm/sec.
Area Treated: Approx. 130,000 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from approx. 30 ft bgs to 100 ft bgs within the fractured bedrock.
Effectiveness:  87% site-wide reduction of VOCs from average baseline. 20 wells sampled. CB below RGs in 15, 1,2-DCE and VC below RGs in 12 wells, TCE below RGs in 8 wells, Aroclor 1260 below RGs in 14 wells, 1,4-DCB below RGs in 19 wells, 4,4-DDT below RGs in 18 wells and alpha-BHC below RGs in 19 wells.

Nyack MGP Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 29

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Site Location: Nyack, NY
Contamination: Bedrock contaminated with non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and MGP-related compounds. Primary contaminants of concern (COCs) include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Levels of COCs reached 6 ppm for VOCs and 1,200 ppm for PAHs in dissolved phase and 8,500 ppm for VOCs, 36,000 ppm for PAHs and 900,000 ppm for TPH in NAPL.
Geology: Fractured Bedrock.
Area Treated: ~36,000 cubic yards consisting of a 20 foot interval of an impacted bedrock zone.
Effectiveness:  Successfully treated a large portion of the free phase NAPL present in the bedrock. The entire project was completed ahead of the schedule and under the budget (the total cost of the treatment program was approx. $300,000). The project was given a "Award of Merit" by New York Construction Magazine in 2007.

Superfund Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 30

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Site Location: Indiana
Contamination: Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX), Diesel Range Organics (DRO) and Gasoline Range Organics(GRO). Concentrations: Maximum GW concentrations (9,700 ppb) BTEX; (21,000 ppb) DRO; and (40,000 ppb) GRO. Soil levels as high as (1,000 ppm) BTEX; (2,100 ppm) DRO; and (920 ppm) GRO).
Geology: Sands and gravel from surface to 3-6 ft bgs, underlain by a 2-6 foot thick clay-silt peat layer, followed by fine to coarse sands to 24 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~36,000 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~14-20 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  For soil, COC reduction was achieved at all 12 monitoring locations with individual reduction rates ranging between 20% to greater than 99%. Total average soil concentration reduction rates ranged from 94% to greater than 99% for VOCs, DRO and GRO. For GW, COC reduction was achieved at 11 of 12 monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging from 15% to greater than 99%. Total average gw concentration reduction rates ranged from 68% to 83% for VOCs, DRO and GRO. Baseline versus post-treatment mass calculations estimated an approximately 5,719 lbs mass destruction in soils and groundwater within the target treatment area.

Active Gas Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 31

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Site Location: Florida
Contamination: Benzene (3 ppb); Toluene (127 ppb); Ethylbenzene (266 ppb); and Total Xylenes (3,028 ppb).
Geology: Fine-to coarse-grained sand interbedded with layers of clayey to silty sand from ground surface to a depth of ~68 ft bgs underlain by weathered limestone. Depth to groundwater is ~25 ft bgs; GW flow is moderate and to the south-southwest.
Area Treated: ~3,600 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~26-35 ft bgs.e
Effectiveness:  GW VOC reduction rates exceeded 99% in all three locations. Treatment area VOC concentrations were reduced from 3,424 ppb to 17 ppb.

Former Gas Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 32

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Site Location: Tampa, Florida
Contamination: Naphtalene (194 ug/l); MTBE (100 ug/l); Benzene (942 ug/l); Toluene (2,750 ug/l); Ethylbenzene (784 ug/l); and Total Xylenes (2,040 ug/l).
Geology: Site is composed of clayey fine sands, silts and clays. White to brown fine grained sand to mottled brown clayey sand from land surface to 12 ft bgs. Tan to grey sandy clay to 18 ft bgs. Clay from 18 to 30 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 660 square feet (sf) area - 10-20 ft bgs treatment interval.
Effectiveness:  Substantial GW VOC reduction of higher than 99% was achieved after only one treatment application. Treatment area total VOC concentration was reduced from 6,810 ppb to 6.2 ppb. The entire project was completed for under $40,000 dollars and the client has recommended that the site enters a natural attenuation monitoring program.

Former Air Force Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 33

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Site Location: Rome, NY
Contamination: Chlorobenzene (CB), 1,2-dichlorobenzene(1,2-DCB), 1,3-dichlorobenzene(1,3-DCB), 1,4-dichlorobenzene(1,4-DCB). GW Average VOC Concentrations: CB (1,333 ug/l), 1,2-DCB (94 ug/l), 1,3-DCB (7 mg/l) and 1,4-DCB (111ug/l).
Geology: Silty sands with minor quantities of clay, bedrock approximately 25 feet bgs. Depth to groundwater is ~10-12 ft bgs; GW flow is moderate and to the southwest.
Area Treated: ~8,000 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~10-25 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  For GW, VOC reduction was achieved at all monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging between 39% to 99%. Average VOC concentrations were reduced by 78%. Average concentrations of CB were treated from a baseline concentration of 1,333 µg/l to 263 µg/l. Conservative mass calculation estimated between 5.9 -10.5 lbs VOC mass removal following Phase I and between 17.4 -17.6 lbs. of VOC mass removal following Phase II.

Former Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 34

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Site Location: Vancouver, Washington
Contamination: Average concentrations of TCE (1,387 ug/l) and PCE (3,267 ug/l)
Geology: Semi-confined sand
Area Treated: Source area and plume
Effectiveness:  Average TCE concentrations reduced by 98%, and average PCE concentrations reduced by 99%

Active Air Force Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 35

Site Location: Middle, Georgia
Contamination: VOCs including Chlorobenzene (7,412 µg/l ), TCE (2,455 µg/l ), cis-1,2-DCE (7,039 µg/l ), DCB Isomers, arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium and SVOCs including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Geology: Fill material consisting of clay, silt and sand from ground surface to a depth of approximately 10 feet bgs underlain by a clay unit to approximately 40 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Source area and plume (estimated to be 307,500 sq ft). Target treatment interval from 30-50 feet bgs for majority of site and from 10-20 feet bgs for the southern most areas of the site.
Effectiveness:  A 90% reduction in all 10 compliance wells was noted after 5th full-scale injection event. The 10 compliance wells selected for the site performance criteria remediation goals showed reductions ranging from 70%-99%.

Active Air Force Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 36

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Site Location: East Coast, United States
Contamination: Chlorinated VOCs including PCE, TCE, Vinyl Chloride and cis-1,2-DCE.
Geology: Fine to medium silty and clayey sand matrix underlain by a sandy clay semi-confining unit at 35 feet bgs. Average hydraulic conductivity was 1.02 x 10 -2 cm/sec in the shallow water bearing unit. Depth to GW is approximately 15-20 feet bgs; with flow in the easterly direction.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 4,500 sq ft targeting the 20-35 feet bgs vertical interval.
Effectiveness: Treatment program results indicated a sharp reduction in the concentration of VOCs, with overall site-wide contamination reduced by over 87% on average and over 92% in the treatment area.

Former MGP Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 37

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Site Location: Macon, Georgia
Contamination: Naphthalene, Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Total Xylenes (BTEX), PAHs and by-product-like material (BPLM).
Geology: Fill material from 0.2-13 feet bgs underlain by alluvial deposits, which is underlain by saprolite. GW is encountered at varying depths throughout the site ranging from 6-25 feet bgs; flow is in the east-southeast direction.
Area Treated: Two areas; larger off-site area approximately 285 ft x 160 ft and the smaller on-site area 50 ft x 50 ft.
Effectiveness:  Based on the operational criteria set forth for the site, majority of wells installed during Phase I have met their remedial requirements and no further injections into those areas are proposed.

Active Military Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 38

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Site Location: East Coast, United States
Contamination: Carbon Tetrachloride (500 µg/l ); and Chloroform (18 µg/l) in groundwater.
Geology: Fine to medium silty and clayey sand matrix underlain by a sandy clay semi-confining unit at 35 feet bgs. Average hydraulic conductivity was 1.00 x 10 -4 cm/sec. The water table is approximately 4.5-12 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~9,000 Sq. ft area at 20-35 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program results indicated an overall VOC destruction of 87% in the treatment area with chloroform being treated to ND values.

Truck Maintenance Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 39

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Site Location: Edison, New Jersey
Contamination: Carbon Tetrachloride, Chloroform, TCE, PCE, Vinyl Chloride, and 1,1-DCE.
Geology: Site is underlain by shale of the Passaic formation. Competent bedrock is overlain by up to 10 feet of unconsolidated materials consisting of in-place weathered bedrock, silt and clay, as well as some reworked local soil. The water table is approximately 6 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area is approximately 415 ft x 275 ft. The target vertical treatment zone covered the 10-100 feet bgs depth interval. Injection well clusters were installed and two depth intervals (10-50 feet bgs and 60-100 feet bgs) were targeted.
Effectiveness:  Average VOC results for all 22 wells sampled show an overall 52% reduction following the last application. Additional treatments have been approved by the client and are pending regulatory approval.

Former Metal Fabricating Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 40

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Site Location: Lakewood, Colorado
Contamination: TCE, PCE, 1,1-DCE, 1,1-DCA, 1,1,1-TCA.
Geology: Subsurface is comprised of fractured bedrock. The water table is approximately 3-15 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered a bedrock well network using a 30-foot spacing grid targeting a 25-foot screened vertical interval.
Effectiveness:  Monitoring wells located within the treatment area have been sampled over a six-year period. Overall there has been an 82% reduction of 1,1-DCE and a 93% reduction of TCE. The facility received notification from the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) requiring no further remedial action.

Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 41

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Site Location: Southern, Colorado
Contamination: PCE.
Geology: Subsurface is comprised of sand and clay down to 30 feet bgs underlain by fractured shale. The water table is approximately 25 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered an injection well network utilizing 30 injection points.
Effectiveness:  Following the injections, four gallons of separate-phase PCE was removed. This volume of PCE is equivalent to 8,000,000 gallons of groundwater at 5 µg/L or 2.4 years of groundwater pumping and treatment using existing systems at the site. An additional eight gallons of separate-phase PCE was oxidized.

Former Dry Cleaner

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 42

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Site Location: Denver, Colorado
Contamination: PCE (3,267 µg/L) and TCE (1,542 µg/L).
Geology: Approximately 3 feet of permeable sand and gravel situated on top of siltstone bedrock and overlain by clay. Siltstone at 10-15 feet bgs. Clay at 0-9 feet bgs. The groundwater at the site appears to be confined to the permeable zone overlying the siltstone.
Area Treated: Phase I treatment targeted the source area (15-foot spacing) while Phase II treatments targeted the entire plume (30-foot spacing).
Effectiveness:  Following quarterly sampling events conducted over a 1-year time frame, both PCE and TCE were reduced by greater than 99%.

Former Reprocessing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 43

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Site Location: South Florida (Superfund Site)
Contamination: TCE (20,000 µg/L in GW; 5,200 mg/kg in soil) and TCA (15,000 µg/L in GW; 3,200 mg/kg in soil). DNAPL present at some locations.
Geology: Oolitic limestone, oolitic & quartz-grain sandstone, and wackestone. Depth to GW approximately 8-10 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered an injection well network utilizing 8 nested well injection points targeting four depth intervals (20-30 feet bgs, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 feet bgs).
Effectiveness:  TCE and TCA in soils reduced by 86% and 94%, respectively. TCE and TCA in groundwater reduced by 97% and 98%, respectively.

Gasoline Station Release

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 44

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Site Location: Frenchglen, Oregon
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Gasoline (TPH-G), 1,2,4-methylbenzene and Benzene.
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sands and silty sands with very dense silty sand layers. GW is encountered at approximately 6-7 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered an injection well network utilizing 28 injection points targeting two depth intervals at each location.
Effectiveness:  TPH-G mass was reduced by approximately 71% and benzene mass was reduced by 90%.

Active Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 45

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Site Location: New York
Contamination: BTEX
Geology: Dense fine gravelly sand with varying amounts of cobbles and silts. Low hydraulic conductivity in the range of 2.01 x 10-4 centimeters per second (cm/s) to 1.97 x 10-5 cm/s. Depth to water is approximately 21-25 feet bgs with flow in the northwest direction.
Area Treated: MFR+XFR Technology. One, 3-day injection event. Injected into 1 permanent well using pressure pulse technology and 2 wells using standard pumping technology.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program results indicated that injections utilizing pressure pulse technology were completed with no observed reagent day-lighting even though substantial reagent volumes (2,550 gallons) were injected into a single well and flow rates were gradually increased. Injections into the same well using standard pumping technology resulted in day-lighting after only 500 gallons.

Chemical Depot

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 46

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Site Location: Pueblo, Colorado
Contamination: TCE and cis-1,2-DCE.
Geology: Interbedded fine-to-coarse grained sand and gravel from 0-40 feet bgs, underlain by shale bedrock.
Area Treated: Source area treatment covering an injection point network consisting of three injection wells targeting the vertical interval between 27-36.6 feet bgs.
Effectiveness:  TCE and cis-DCE in GW reduced by 93% and 97%, respectively. Third pilot program injection event was cancelled due to successful results achieved after the first two events.

Former Military Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 47

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Site Location: Northern California
Contamination: Dichlorobenzene isomers and VOCs. Primary COCs were 1,2-DCB and 1,4-DCB.
Geology: The subsurface is comprised of interbedded layers of silt, silty sand and sand.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered a portion of the 11-acre site containing dissolved phase COCs. The target vertical treatment zone covered the 9-15 feet bgs depth interval. Approximately 360 temporary DP points were utilized to perform ISCO throughout the site.
Effectiveness:  Concentrations of 1,4-DCB and 1,2-DCB in groundwater were reduced by 99% and 96%, respectively.

Former Wood Product Mill

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 48

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Site Location: Arlington, Washington
Contamination: Pentachlorophenol (PCP).
Geology: The subsurface at the site consists of interbedded silty sands and sandy silts to approximately 7 feet bgs. Medium to coarse sand was encountered from 7-16.5 feet bgs. Depth to GW ranged from 7.5-11 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 22,500 sq. feet covering the 11-17 feet bgs interval during the first event and the 7-16 feet bgs interval during event II. Approximately 140 temporary DP points were utilized to perform ISCO throughout the site.
Effectiveness:  Average PCP concentration in groundwater was reduced by 91%.

Gasoline Station Release

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 49

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Site Location: Homer, Louisiana
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Gasoline (TPH-G) and Benzene (350 mg/kg in soil; 1,435 µg/L in GW).
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sandy clays. GW is encountered at approximately 12 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 2,000 sq. feet covering the 15-18 and 18-21 depth intervals.
Effectiveness:  Benzene concentrations were reduced by 85% and 90% in MW-3 and MW-5, respectively. Full-Scale ISCO remediation program reduced the TPH-G mass by approximately 2,500 lbs. (from 2,800 lbs. to 300 lbs.). Based on contaminant concentration reductions at the site, a No Further Action (NFA) determination was made by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ).

Former Retail Petroleum Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 50

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Site Location: Paramount, California
Contamination: Tert-butyl-alcohol (TBA).
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sandy silt and silty clay to a depth of approximately 25 feet bgs underlain by silty, fine-sand to the total depth explored of 40 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 11,000 sq. feet covering the 26-37 feet bgs depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Average TBA concentration in GW reduced by 96%.

Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 51

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Site Location: Fort Worth, Texas
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) and BTEX contaminants.
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sand and silty-sand from the surface to a depth of 5 feet bgs. This unit is underlain by a silty-clay, approximately 5-10 feet thick, that acts as a confining layer to groundwater present in a clayey-sand found beneath the silty-clay.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 3,000 sq. feet covering the 22-30 feet bgs depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Average TPH and BTEX concentrations in soil reduced by 86% and 83%, respectively.

Northwest Terminal Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 52

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Site Location: Portland, Oregon
Contamination: Pentachlorophenol (PCP).
Geology: Upper zone is a discontinuous, unconfined aquifer compromised of fill and river alluvial deposits, consisting mainly of sand. There is seasonal variability in the upper water zone; seasonal high levels in winter and spring and low levels in the fall, about 3 feet in variation. The confining unit consists of silt to sandy silt of variable thickness, between 1-17 feet thick.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 5,600 sq. feet in the source area and 30,000 sq. feet in the downgradient plume. The target treatment interval covered the 16-19 feet bgs aquifer interval.
Effectiveness:  Average PCP concentration in groundwater was reduced by 93%.

Former Chemical and Plastics Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 53

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Site Location: Syracuse, New York
Contamination: Ethylbenzene, xylenes and 2-ethylanthraquinone (2-EAQ).
Geology: Subsurface is compromised of fill, clay, clayey silt, silt, silty sand, and sand from surface to approximately 26 feet bgs. Depth to water is approximately 6 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 6,000 sq. feet targeting the 8-16 and 18-26 feet bgs aquifer intervals.
Effectiveness:  Saturated soil concentrations of xylenes, ethylbenzene and 2-EAQ were reduced by 93%, 93% and 76%, respectively.

Vanderberg Air Force Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 54

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Site Location: California
Contamination: TCE impacted groundwater.
Geology: Subsurface is compromised of homogenous sands with a few thin silt and clay lenses to a depth of approximately 22 feet bgs, underlain by a clay layer. Depth to GW is approximately 11 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 10,000 sq. feet targeting the 12-16 and 16-21 feet bgs depth intervals.
Effectiveness:  Average TCE concentrations were reduced by 87% throughout the site with one location showing a >99% reduction.

Former Bakery Operation

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 55

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Site Location: Antioch, California
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Gasoline (TPH-G) and Benzene. Concentrations as high as 15,000 µg/L for TPH-G and 2,200 µg/L for Benzene.
Geology: The subsurface is compromised mostly of silt from ground surface-11 feet bgs, and clay from 11-36 feet bgs. The clay is underlain by sandy-silt to approximately 53 feet bgs. GW is encountered at approximately 36 feet bgs; flow ranging from northeasterly to northwesterly.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 4,000 sq. feet covering the 22-34 and 36-44 depth intervals.
Effectiveness:  Benzene concentrations were reduced by 95% and 97% in VW-2 and SVE-1, respectively. TPH-G concentrations were reduced by 81% and 91% in VW-2 and SVE-1, respectively.

Residential Lakefront Property

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 56

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Site Location: Medford, New Jersey
Contamination: Benzene-3,500 ppb (GW), 5,000 ppb (Soil); Toluene-5,200 ppb (GW), 160,000 ppb (Soil); Ethylbenzene-1,100 ppb (GW), 120,000 ppb (Soil); Total Xylenes-5,700 ppb (GW), 590,000 ppb (Soil); Total VOC TICs-4,140 ppb (GW), 850,000 ppb (Soil); and TPH-15,400 ppb (Soil).
Geology: Targeted portion of the aquifer is composed of clayey silts. GW is encountered at approximately 4-6 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Three areas of the property were treated, including the garage area underneath the residence. Target vertical treatment area between 4-15 feet bgs.
Effectiveness:  Maximum GW VOC reduction was achieved in MW-1 with each individual BTEXN compound treated by greater than 99% and total VOC TICs treated to ND value. Results from MW-2 showed reduction in VOCs ranging from 48%->99%; naphthalene showed an increase in concentration. Total VOC TICs were reduced by 55%. Post-treatment soil samples indicated reduction of all COCs except for total xylenes to below criteria in the sample collected north of the building; all COCs below criteria except for benzene in the sample collected beneath the residence; and all COCs treated below criteria in the sample collected south of the building.

Residential Property

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 57

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Site Location: Blackwood, New Jersey
Contamination: #2 Fuel Oil Related Compounds. VOCs-1,169 ppb (GW), SVOCs-2,460 ppb (GW), VOC TICs-611 ppb (GW), SVOC TICs-50,100 ppb (GW), and TPH-32,000 ppm (Soil). LNAPL sheen has been observed in site GW.
Geology: Targeted portion of the aquifer is composed of fine, medium and coarse sands to approximately 24 ft bgs. GW is encountered at approximately 17-18 feet bgs.
Area Treated: ~1,330 sq. ft at a vertical interval of 17-24 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Four existing and three newly installed monitoring wells were used to measure treatment effectiveness. Three locations showed low to ND levels. The four remaining locations showed reductions ranging from 93%-98% for VOCs, 88%-100% for SVOCs, 41%-95% for VOC TICs and 72%-96% for SVOC TICs. Two locations showed VOC increases.

Active Military Base

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 58

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Site Location: Virginia
Contamination: 1,1-DCA; 1,2-DCB; 1,4-DCB; 1,1-DCE; 1,1,1-TCA; 1,2,4-TCB; TCE and VC. Total VOCs as high as 51,095 ug/l in MW-2.
Geology: Upper layer consisting of a mixture of very fine silty clay, clayey sands and sandy clay underlined by a mostly sand unit. A third layer consisting mostly of clay served as a confining layer. Average hydraulic conductivity was 4.8 x 10-3 ft/min. Depth of water approximately 1-4 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 20,000 sq. feet targeting 11-19 ft. bgs depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program results indicated a sharp reduction in VOCs, in four out of the six monitoring wells with reductions ranging from 55-93%. Most significant reduction was noted in MW-2 which went from a baseline value of 51,095 ug/l to 4,017 ug/l, a 92% reduction.

Former Waste Pit Disposal Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 59

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Site Location: Western Coast of Denmark
Contamination: PCE; TCE; TPH; Benzene, Toluene and Xylenes (BTX); anilines; sulfonamides and barbiturates. Significant amount of COCs exist as DNAPLs. Average PCE soil concentration in Layer 2.1 was 3,100 mg/kg and about 280 mg/kg in Layer 2.2.
Geology: Fine sands from ground surface to 3.5 mbgs (Layer 2.1), underlain by Layer 2.2 from 3.5-15 mbgs consisting of sands and gravel. Depth to water approximately 3-4 mbgs.
Area Treated: 8m x 8m test cell area (Pit 1) consisting of Layer 2.1 (3-6 mgbs) and Layer 2.2 (6-9 mbgs).
Effectiveness:  Post treatment pilot study results indicated significant reduction in overall mass was achieved in both Layers 2.1 and 2.2.

Confidential Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 60

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Site Location: Northern New Jersey
Contamination: Cr (VI) levels between 240-1,770 mg/kg in site soils. Average Cr (VI) concentration in soils was estimated to be 100 mg/kg for the design of the ISCR treatment program.
Geology: Site geology consists of fill material to a depth of approximately 5-12 feet bgs consisting mostly of silty sands underlain by a 0.5-3.0 feet thick organic peat layer encountered between 6-12 feet bgs referred to as meadow mat. Depth to water is approximately 4 feet bgs. GW flow is to the west.
Area Treated: 28,000 sq. ft area from 3-12 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Post-treatment samples are scheduled to be collected by the client approximately three years after the ISCR injection event.

Active Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 61

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Site Location: Long Island, New York
Contamination: Petroleum related VOC's in soil and groundwater. BTEX.
Geology: Fine to coarse grained sands, with gravel 0-30 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 15-30 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program is still ongoing and no results are currently available.

Former Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 62

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Site Location: Upstate, New York
Contamination: VOCs: Primarily toluene, heptanes and methyl cyclohexane. Concentrations of toluene have been as high as 180,000 ug/l in groundwater and 13,000 ug/kg in site soils. Historical evidence of free phase product observed but no significant accumulations in the recent past.
Geology: Silty clays with layers of fine to coarse sands and gravel from ground surface to approximately 15 feet bgs. Depth to water approximately 7-9 feet bgs.
Area Treated: 50 x 100 foot area down to 8 feet bgs. 5,000 ft3 or 185 yd3 area.
Effectiveness:  The spraying application was performed as a secondary treatment remedy to target any residual COCs remaining at the bottom of the pit after soil excavation activities (primary treatment remedy) were performed. Testing of the excavated pit area is not scheduled to be performed.

Former Distribution Terminal

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 63

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Site Location: New Jersey
Contamination: Methylene Chloride; BTEX; TCE; MTBE; TCA
Geology: Fractured Bedrock
Area Treated: Area of concern extends vertically from approximately 17 to 50 feet bgs over three bedrock fractures.
Effectiveness:  Substantial GW VOC reduction from 90% to 99% achieved in injection area monitoring wells. Estimated 851 lbs of COC mass including trapped DNAPL mass treated.

Former MGP Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 64

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Site Location: Yonkers, New York
Contamination: BTEX; PAHs
Geology: Site geology consists of silty sand from the ground surface to approximately 17 ft bgs leading into a glacial till zone. Bedrock is encountered at around 21-29 ft bgs. Depth to water is approximately 10-12 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Two treatment areas. Area A =~3,600 ft2 from 9.5-26ft bgs; 21 IW's. Area B =~7,000 ft2 from 10-26 ft bgs; 54 IW's.
Effectiveness:  Post-treatment success will be evaluated by the client with sampling scheduled in the next few months.

O&G Superfund Drum Reconditioning Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 67

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Site Location: Kingston, New Hampshire
Contamination: VOCs, primarily – BTEX, PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCA, & 1,4-Dioxane. VOC levels as high as 20,000 ug/l.
Geology: Site geology consists of fine to medium sand, some silt, and trace gravel with bedrock encountered at ~18-35 ft bgs. Depth to water is approximately 3-6 ft bgs with flow in the southeastern direction.
Area Treated: Two treatment areas; Area A (~17,400sq. ft) & Area B (~1,800 sq. ft)
Effectiveness:  No further injections are scheduled to take place at the site.