INDUSTRIAL/MANUFACTURING

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Warehousing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 1

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Site Location: Union, NJ
Contamination: BTEX (28,161 ppb); Methyl t-butyl ether (7,240 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Unconfined silty layer.
Area Treated: Approximately 5,000 sq. ft between 0 - 20 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Each compound was treated to below its NJDEP standard; site received No Further Action letter.

Manufacturing and Warehouse Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 2

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Site Location: Passaic, NJ
Contamination: trans-1,2-Dichloroethene (18.8 ppb); cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (317,200 ppb); Xylenes (3,400 ppb); Ethylbenzene (2,000 ppb); Trichloroethene (78 ppb); and Vinyl Chloride (4,224 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Fine silt and clay layer; water table at approximately 8-10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 1000 sq. ft .
Effectiveness:  Site-wide total VOCs were reduced from 278,849 ppb to 178 ppb.

Former Electronic Transformer Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 3

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Site Location: Ocean County, NJ
Contamination: Chloroform (25 ppb); 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (33 ppb); Trichloroethene (493 ppb); and Tetrachloroethene (212 ppb)
Geology: Sandy, silty, clay stratum (3 to 18 ft bgs) overlying basalt bedrock. Water table is at approximately 10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 1,400 sq. ft.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide total VOCs were reduced by >70% with chlorinated VOCs decreased from 793 ppb to 269 ppb. NJDEP issued No Further Action letter and closed the case.

Former Sign Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 4

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Site Location: Denver, CO
Contamination: BTEX (24,595 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Confined clay layers with permeable sand lenses.
Area Treated: ~9,600 sq. ft at a vertical interval of 2-8 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Overall BTEX reduced from 24,595 ppb to 89 ppb. Each COC was treated to ND or well below its cleanup level throughout the plume. State of Colorado issued an Unrestricted No Further Action letter to the property.

Truck Rental Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 5

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Site Location: Oklahoma City, OK
Contamination: BTEX up to 4,100 ppb plus free product in some locations.
Geology: Alluvial sand; water table is approximately 12 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~3,000 sq. ft at an interval of 20-30 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Up to 93% reduction in total VOCs site-wide.

Former Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 6

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Site Location: Northern NJ
Contamination: Tetrachloroethene (203 ppb).
Geology: Unconsolidated zone above fractured bedrock, "Zone A"
Area Treated: ~20,000 sq. ft in Zone A (22'-26') and bedrock (38'-67').
Effectiveness:  Total VOCs reduced by 74% in Zone A & 58% in bedrock.

Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 7

Site Location: Southern Colorado
Contamination: Tetrachloroethene - PCE (up to 19,800 ppb in the plume; higher conc. in selected hot spots).
Geology: Sand + Clay formation up to 30 ft underlain by fractured shale; water table is at approximately 25 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~ 15,000 sq.ft with an interval of 20-30 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Achieved over 75% reduction of PCE in DNAPL source area when both SVE and P/T systems failed to meet the remedial goals.

Utilities Authority

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 9

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Site Location: Southern NJ
Contamination: Toluene (87 ppb); Ethylbenzene (91 ppb); Xylenes (1,260 ppb); Naphthalene (27 ppb); and 2-Methylnaphthalene (5 ppb).
Geology: Sandy formation; water table is approximately 9-10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 1000 sq. ft at an interval of 10-18 ft bgs.
Effectiveness: All COCs were treated to below NJDEP groundwater criteria with VOCs reduced by 99% and base neutral compounds by 76%..

Active Quarry Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 10

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Site Location: Sussex County, NJ
Contamination: 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (341 ppb); 1,2-Dichlorobenzene (2,760 ppb); Naphthalene (279 ppb)
Geology: Fractured bedrock underlying glacial overburden 9-20 ft thick; water table is at approximately 20-25 ft bgs within the bedrock
Area Treated: Approximately 1200 sq. ft at an interval from 20-65 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide groundwater contamination reduced by 98%. All COCs were treated to ND or well below NJDEP groundwater criteria.

Railroad Maintenance Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 13

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Site Location: North Creek, NY
Contamination: Petroleum hydrocarbons in soil.
Geology: Saturated sand and gravel, located 20 feet from banks of Hudson River.
Area Treated: 13,800 Sq. ft area at 2.5-12 fbgs vertical depth interval. Depth to water approximately 8 - 10 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Total VOCs reduced by 83.1% & PAHs by 81.5%. Site received Case closure. Project received Grand Conceptor Award and National Recognition Award.

Manufacturing and Warehouse Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 15

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Site Location: Bergen, NJ
Contamination: Trichloroethene (19,805 ppb); trans & cis-1,2-Dichloroethene (113,660 ppb) and Vinyl Chloride (17,570 ppb) in groundwater.
Geology: Silty soil, saturated zone from 5'-40' bgs; water table is at approximately 5-8 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 5,400 Sq. ft area at 5-40 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Total VOCs reduced by 98% from 151,476 ppb to 3,180 ppb.

Former Cosmetic Manufacturing Plant

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 22

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Site Location: Central NJ
Contamination: Ethanol (354,943 ppb), Trichloroethene (31,162 ppb), Methylene Chloride (10,200 ppb), Trichlorofluoromethane (51,762 ppb) & 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (11,166 ppb).
Geology: Fractured bedrock aquifer. Water table is at approximately 14-25 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Treatment interval 20-70ft bgs for pilot. On going full scale is 100,000 sq ft and 20-70 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Site-wide total VOCs reduced by 93% from 108,380 ppb to 7,328 ppb. Site-wide Ethanol concentrations reduced by 99% from 354,943 ppb to 4,591 ppb.

Former Industrial Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 27

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Site Location: Eatontown, NJ
Contamination: TCE, PCE, cis-1,2-DCE, BTEX, and PCBs. Average Concentrations: GW VOC (75,204 ug/l); Soil VOC (2,402 mg/kg); GW PCB (ND); and Soil PCB (4,095 mg/kg).
Geology: Sands and silt from ground surface to a depth of ~45 ft bgs underlain by sandy clays. Depth to groundwater is ~7-8 ft bgs; GW flow is moderate and to the north.
Area Treated: ~32,600 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~5-20 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  For soil, VOC reduction was achieved at 10 of 12 monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging between 75% to greater than 99%. PCB reduction rates ranged from 35% to greater than 99% at 10 of 12 locations. For GW, VOC reduction was achieved in all 8 monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging from 70% to greater than 99%. PCBs were present below detection limits in GW. Baseline versus post-treatment mass calculations indicate an approximate 70,600 lbs mass destruction in soils and groundwater within the target treatment area.

Superfund Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 30

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Site Location: Indiana
Contamination: Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX), Diesel Range Organics (DRO) and Gasoline Range Organics(GRO). Concentrations: Maximum GW concentrations (9,700 ppb) BTEX; (21,000 ppb) DRO; and (40,000 ppb) GRO. Soil levels as high as (1,000 ppm) BTEX; (2,100 ppm) DRO; and (920 ppm) GRO).
Geology: Sands and gravel from surface to 3-6 ft bgs, underlain by a 2-6 foot thick clay-silt peat layer, followed by fine to coarse sands to 24 ft bgs.
Area Treated: ~36,000 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~14-20 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  For soil, COC reduction was achieved at all 12 monitoring locations with individual reduction rates ranging between 20% to greater than 99%. Total average soil concentration reduction rates ranged from 94% to greater than 99% for VOCs, DRO and GRO. For GW, COC reduction was achieved at 11 of 12 monitoring locations with reduction rates ranging from 15% to greater than 99%. Total average gw concentration reduction rates ranged from 68% to 83% for VOCs, DRO and GRO. Baseline versus post-treatment mass calculations estimated an approximately 5,719 lbs mass destruction in soils and groundwater within the target treatment area.

Former Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 34

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Site Location: Vancouver, Washington
Contamination: Average concentrations of TCE (1,387 ug/l) and PCE (3,267 ug/l)
Geology: Semi-confined sand
Area Treated: Source area and plume
Effectiveness:  Average TCE concentrations reduced by 98%, and average PCE concentrations reduced by 99%

Truck Maintenance Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 39

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Site Location: Edison, New Jersey
Contamination: Carbon Tetrachloride, Chloroform, TCE, PCE, Vinyl Chloride, and 1,1-DCE.
Geology: Site is underlain by shale of the Passaic formation. Competent bedrock is overlain by up to 10 feet of unconsolidated materials consisting of in-place weathered bedrock, silt and clay, as well as some reworked local soil. The water table is approximately 6 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area is approximately 415 ft x 275 ft. The target vertical treatment zone covered the 10-100 feet bgs depth interval. Injection well clusters were installed and two depth intervals (10-50 feet bgs and 60-100 feet bgs) were targeted.
Effectiveness:  Average VOC results for all 22 wells sampled show an overall 52% reduction following the last application. Additional treatments have been approved by the client and are pending regulatory approval.

Former Metal Fabricating Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 40

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Site Location: Lakewood, Colorado
Contamination: TCE, PCE, 1,1-DCE, 1,1-DCA, 1,1,1-TCA.
Geology: Subsurface is comprised of fractured bedrock. The water table is approximately 3-15 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered a bedrock well network using a 30-foot spacing grid targeting a 25-foot screened vertical interval.
Effectiveness:  Monitoring wells located within the treatment area have been sampled over a six-year period. Overall there has been an 82% reduction of 1,1-DCE and a 93% reduction of TCE. The facility received notification from the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) requiring no further remedial action.

Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 41

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Site Location: Southern, Colorado
Contamination: PCE.
Geology: Subsurface is comprised of sand and clay down to 30 feet bgs underlain by fractured shale. The water table is approximately 25 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered an injection well network utilizing 30 injection points.
Effectiveness:  Following the injections, four gallons of separate-phase PCE was removed. This volume of PCE is equivalent to 8,000,000 gallons of groundwater at 5 µg/L or 2.4 years of groundwater pumping and treatment using existing systems at the site. An additional eight gallons of separate-phase PCE was oxidized.

Former Reprocessing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 43

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Site Location: South Florida (Superfund Site)
Contamination: TCE (20,000 µg/L in GW; 5,200 mg/kg in soil) and TCA (15,000 µg/L in GW; 3,200 mg/kg in soil). DNAPL present at some locations.
Geology: Oolitic limestone, oolitic & quartz-grain sandstone, and wackestone. Depth to GW approximately 8-10 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered an injection well network utilizing 8 nested well injection points targeting four depth intervals (20-30 feet bgs, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 feet bgs).
Effectiveness:  TCE and TCA in soils reduced by 86% and 94%, respectively. TCE and TCA in groundwater reduced by 97% and 98%, respectively.

Chemical Depot

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 46

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Site Location: Pueblo, Colorado
Contamination: TCE and cis-1,2-DCE.
Geology: Interbedded fine-to-coarse grained sand and gravel from 0-40 feet bgs, underlain by shale bedrock.
Area Treated: Source area treatment covering an injection point network consisting of three injection wells targeting the vertical interval between 27-36.6 feet bgs.
Effectiveness:  TCE and cis-DCE in GW reduced by 93% and 97%, respectively. Third pilot program injection event was cancelled due to successful results achieved after the first two events.

Former Wood Product Mil

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 48

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Site Location: Arlington, Washington
Contamination: Pentachlorophenol (PCP).
Geology: The subsurface at the site consists of interbedded silty sands and sandy silts to approximately 7 feet bgs. Medium to coarse sand was encountered from 7-16.5 feet bgs. Depth to GW ranged from 7.5-11 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 22,500 sq. feet covering the 11-17 feet bgs interval during the first event and the 7-16 feet bgs interval during event II. Approximately 140 temporary DP points were utilized to perform ISCO throughout the site.
Effectiveness:  Average PCP concentration in groundwater was reduced by 91%.

Northwest Terminal Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 52

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Site Location: Portland, Oregon
Contamination: Pentachlorophenol (PCP).
Geology: Upper zone is a discontinuous, unconfined aquifer compromised of fill and river alluvial deposits, consisting mainly of sand. There is seasonal variability in the upper water zone; seasonal high levels in winter and spring and low levels in the fall, about 3 feet in variation. The confining unit consists of silt to sandy silt of variable thickness, between 1-17 feet thick.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 5,600 sq. feet in the source area and 30,000 sq. feet in the downgradient plume. The target treatment interval covered the 16-19 feet bgs aquifer interval.
Effectiveness:  Average PCP concentration in groundwater was reduced by 93%.

Former Chemical and Plastics Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 53

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Site Location: Syracuse, New York
Contamination: Ethylbenzene, xylenes and 2-ethylanthraquinone (2-EAQ).
Geology: Subsurface is compromised of fill, clay, clayey silt, silt, silty sand, and sand from surface to approximately 26 feet bgs. Depth to water is approximately 6 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 6,000 sq. feet targeting the 8-16 and 18-26 feet bgs aquifer intervals.
Effectiveness:  Saturated soil concentrations of xylenes, ethylbenzene and 2-EAQ were reduced by 93%, 93% and 76%, respectively.

Former Bakery Operation

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 55

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Site Location: Antioch, California
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Gasoline (TPH-G) and Benzene. Concentrations as high as 15,000 µg/L for TPH-G and 2,200 µg/L for Benzene.
Geology: The subsurface is compromised mostly of silt from ground surface-11 feet bgs, and clay from 11-36 feet bgs. The clay is underlain by sandy-silt to approximately 53 feet bgs. GW is encountered at approximately 36 feet bgs; flow ranging from northeasterly to northwesterly.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 4,000 sq. feet covering the 22-34 and 36-44 depth intervals.
Effectiveness:  Benzene concentrations were reduced by 95% and 97% in VW-2 and SVE-1, respectively. TPH-G concentrations were reduced by 81% and 91% in VW-2 and SVE-1, respectively.

Confidential Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 60

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Site Location: Northern New Jersey
Contamination: Cr (VI) levels between 240-1,770 mg/kg in site soils. Average Cr (VI) concentration in soils was estimated to be 100 mg/kg for the design of the ISCR treatment program.
Geology: Site geology consists of fill material to a depth of approximately 5-12 feet bgs consisting mostly of silty sands underlain by a 0.5-3.0 feet thick organic peat layer encountered between 6-12 feet bgs referred to as meadow mat. Depth to water is approximately 4 feet bgs. GW flow is to the west.
Area Treated: 28,000 sq. ft area from 3-12 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Post-treatment samples are scheduled to be collected by the client approximately three years after the ISCR injection event.

Former Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 62

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Site Location: Upstate, New York
Contamination: Primarily toluene, heptanes and methyl cyclohexane. Concentrations of toluene have been as high as 180,000 ug/l in groundwater and 13,000 ug/kg in site soils. Historical evidence of free phase product observed but no significant accumulations in the recent past.
Geology: Silty clays with layers of fine to coarse sands and gravel from ground surface to approximately 15 feet bgs. Depth to water approximately 7-9 feet bgs.
Area Treated: 50 x 100 foot area down to 8 feet bgs. 5,000 ft3 or 185 yd3 area.
Effectiveness:  The spraying application was performed as a secondary treatment remedy to target any residual COCs remaining at the bottom of the pit after soil excavation activities (primary treatment remedy) were performed. Testing of the excavated pit area is not scheduled to be performed.

Former Distribution Terminal

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 63

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Site Location: New Jersey
Contamination: Methylene Chloride; BTEX; TCE; MTBE; TCA
Geology: Fractured Bedrock
Area Treated: Area of concern extends vertically from approximately 17 to 50 feet bgs over three bedrock fractures.
Effectiveness:  Substantial GW VOC reduction from 90% to 99% achieved in injection area monitoring wells. Estimated 851 lbs of COC mass including trapped DNAPL mass treated.

Former Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 65

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Site Location: Northern Wisconsin
Contamination: TCE soil levels as high as 140,000 ug/kg
Geology: Site geology consists of mostly clay from 0-15 feet bgs underlain by a mostly sand unit from 15-30 feet bgs. Depth to water is approximately 25-30 feet bgs.
Area Treated: ~13,500 sq ft area from 0-15 ft bgs within the upper clay unit and ~11,700 sq ft area from 15-30 ft bgs within the lower sand unit.
Effectiveness:  Post-treatment verification sampling data confirmed that 36 of 37 samples collected were below the remediation target goal of 1.5 mg/kg.

Former Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 66

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Site Location: Central New Jersey
Contamination: 1,1,1-TCA, 1,2-DCB, PCE, TCE, Ethylbenzene & Total Xylenes. Total VOCs as high as 32,407 mg/kg.
Geology: Site geology consists of mostly silts with layers of fine to coarse sands. Depth to water is approximately 13-15 feet bgs. GW flow is to the southwest.
Area Treated: ~480 sq. ft area from 17-25 ft bgs within the saturated zone (142 cubic yards).
Effectiveness:  Post-treatment samples are scheduled to be collected by the client in the next few months.

O&G Superfund Drum Reconditioning Site

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 67

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Site Location: Kingston, New Hampshire
Contamination: VOCs, primarily – BTEX, PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCA, & 1,4-Dioxane. VOC levels as high as 20,000 ug/l.
Geology: Site geology consists of fine to medium sand, some silt, and trace gravel with bedrock encountered at ~18-35 ft bgs. Depth to water is approximately 3-6 ft bgs with flow in the southeastern direction.
Area Treated: Two treatment areas; Area A (~17,400sq. ft) & Area B (~1,800 sq. ft)
Effectiveness:  No further injections are scheduled to take place at the site.

Former Manufacturing Facility

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 68

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Site Location: Western Massachusetts
Contamination: PCE, TCE, cis-1,2-DCE and VC. PCE concentrations as high as 53,000 ug/l.
Geology: Site geology consists of very fine sand with intervals of silt. Depth to water is approximately 9-11 feet bgs. GW flow is from west to east.
Area Treated: ~800 sq. ft area from 10-20 ft bgs within the saturated zone (296 cubic yards).
Effectiveness:  Post-treatment samples collected from the 3 temporary wells showed concentrations ranging from 2,900-3,600 ug/l which were all below the performance criteria of 15,000 ug/l set forth for the site. No further remediation work is planned for the site.