GASOLINE SERVICE STATIONS/REPAIR GARAGES

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Former Maintenance and Repair Garage

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 11

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Site Location: West Chester, NY
Contamination: BTEX (4,869 ppb) and MTBE (451 ppb).
Geology: Very fine to coarse sand and gravel underlain by fractured bedrock. Water table is approximately 3-10 ft bgs.
Area Treated: - Two separate areas: 2,400 sq ft BTEX plume and a downgradient 17,600 sq ft MTBE plume targeting the 11 - 20 ft bgs interval.
Effectiveness:  66% reduction of total BTEX and 62% of MTBE in hot spots, and below NYSDEC cleanup criteria in downgradient area. NYSDEC issued No Further Action letter.

Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 17

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Site Location: Northwestern Florida
Contamination: Benzene (29,942 ppb); Toluene (25,009 ppb); and Ethylbenzene (2,942 ppb).
Geology: Compact fine to medium grained silty clayey sands from land surface to 6 ft bgs followed by a clay lens; water table is approximately 6-7 ft bgs in source area.
Area Treated: 14,130 Sq. ft area at 3-17 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Benzene was reduced by >90%; Ethylbenzene and Toluene were treated to below FDEP criteria in the treated area.

Former Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 24

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Site Location: Western Florida
Contamination: Benzene (3,736 ppb); Ethylbenzene (5,768 ppb); Toluene (10,700 ppb); Xylenes (9,984 ppb); and Naphthalene (1,372 ppb).
Geology: General shallow subsurface conditions at the site consist of fine sands and silty sands; water table at approximately 5-7 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 12,000 Sq. ft area at 4-15 ft bgs vertical depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Greater than 99% reduction of total VOCs and SVOCs site-wide following ISOTEC pilot and full-scale treatment programs. All concentrations reduced to below the most stringent FDEP groundwater quality standards.

Active Gas Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 31

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Site Location: Florida
Contamination: Benzene (3 ppb); Toluene (127 ppb); Ethylbenzene (266 ppb); and Total Xylenes (3,028 ppb).
Geology: Fine-to coarse-grained sand interbedded with layers of clayey to silty sand from ground surface to a depth of ~68 ft bgs underlain by weathered limestone. Depth to groundwater is ~25 ft bgs; GW flow is moderate and to the south-southwest.
Area Treated: ~3,600 Sq. ft total area. Target treatment zone ranged from ~26-35 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  GW VOC reduction rates exceeded 99% in all three locations. Treatment area VOC concentrations were reduced from 3,424 ppb to 17 ppb.

Former Gas Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 32

Site Location: Tampa, Florida
Contamination: Naphtalene (194 ug/l); MTBE (100 ug/l); Benzene (942 ug/l); Toluene (2,750 ug/l); Ethylbenzene (784 ug/l); and Total Xylenes (2,040 ug/l).
Geology: Site is composed of clayey fine sands, silts and clays. White to brown fine grained sand to mottled brown clayey sand from land surface to 12 ft bgs. Tan to grey sandy clay to 18 ft bgs. Clay from 18 to 30 ft bgs.
Area Treated: Approximately 660 square feet (sf) area - 10-20 ft bgs treatment interval.
Effectiveness:  Substantial GW VOC reduction of higher than 99% was achieved after only one treatment application. Treatment area total VOC concentration was reduced from 6,810 ppb to 6.2 ppb. The entire project was completed for under $40,000 dollars and the client has recommended that the site enters a natural attenuation monitoring program.

Gasoline Station Release

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 44

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Site Location: Frenchglen, Oregon
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Gasoline (TPH-G), 1,2,4-methylbenzene and Benzene.
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sands and silty sands with very dense silty sand layers. GW is encountered at approximately 6-7 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area covered an injection well network utilizing 28 injection points targeting two depth intervals at each location.
Effectiveness:  TPH-G mass was reduced by approximately 71% and benzene mass was reduced by 90%.

Active Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 45

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Site Location: New York
Contamination: BTEX
Geology: Dense fine gravelly sand with varying amounts of cobbles and silts. Low hydraulic conductivity in the range of 2.01 x 10-4 centimeters per second (cm/s) to 1.97 x 10-5 cm/s. Depth to water is approximately 21-25 feet bgs with flow in the northwest direction.
Area Treated: MFR+XFR Technology. One, 3-day injection event. Injected into 1 permanent well using pressure pulse technology and 2 wells using standard pumping technology.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program results indicated that injections utilizing pressure pulse technology were completed with no observed reagent day-lighting even though substantial reagent volumes (2,550 gallons) were injected into a single well and flow rates were gradually increased. Injections into the same well using standard pumping technology resulted in day-lighting after only 500 gallons.

Gasoline Station Release

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 49

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Site Location: Homer, Louisiana
Contamination: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Gasoline (TPH-G) and Benzene (350 mg/kg in soil; 1,435 µg/L in GW).
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sandy clays. GW is encountered at approximately 12 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 2,000 sq. feet covering the 15-18 and 18-21 depth intervals.
Effectiveness:  Benzene concentrations were reduced by 85% and 90% in MW-3 and MW-5, respectively. Full-Scale ISCO remediation program reduced the TPH-G mass by approximately 2,500 lbs. (from 2,800 lbs. to 300 lbs.). Based on contaminant concentration reductions at the site, a No Further Action (NFA) determination was made by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ).

Former Retail Petroleum Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 50

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Site Location: Paramount, California
Contamination: Tert-butyl-alcohol (TBA).
Geology: The subsurface is compromised of sandy silt and silty clay to a depth of approximately 25 feet bgs underlain by silty, fine-sand to the total depth explored of 40 feet bgs.
Area Treated: Target treatment area was approximately 11,000 sq. feet covering the 26-37 feet bgs depth interval.
Effectiveness:  Average TBA concentration in GW reduced by 96%.

Active Gasoline Service Station

ISOTEC CASE STUDY 61

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Site Location: Long Island, New York
Contamination: Petroleum related VOC's in soil and groundwater. BTEX.
Geology: Fine to coarse grained sands, with gravel 0-30 ft bgs.
Area Treated: 15-30 ft bgs.
Effectiveness:  Treatment program is still ongoing and no results are currently available.